Play with Snow in Chennai: VGP Snow Kingdom

The VGP Snow Kingdom, near VGP Golden Beach, is an excellent snow-based theme park in Chennai where you can walk, touch, and play with snow. Maybe ice. I guess since they maintain the 14,000 sq. feet of space at Minux Six Deg. C the snow doesn’t melt.

The Snow Kingdom is right next to VGP Golden Beach & Resorts campus and in the same building as the Click Art Museum. We went there on a Monday afternoon and hence there was not much crowd. The ticket cost was Rs. 450 per adult when we went. Sometimes they run deals that offer a lower ticket price on their website – you can also book tickets online there.

They give a thick jacket, rubber boots, and gloves for everyone to better manage the cold-temp inside. Initially, we halted in an acclimatization area which is slightly cooler. After being there for a few minutes, we were let in.

We were able to FEEL the COLD almost immediately!

For the first few minutes, I was just standing or walking slowly and trying to adjust to the temperature. If you want to take photos inside, there is another issue – you need to remove the gloves! It’s difficult to remove the gloves for longer durations. I did touch the snow a couple of times with bare hands. It was like touching the ice in our fridge 🙂

There is a small resting room (maintained at a higher temperature) near the exit gate where people can go to temporarily get some respite from the cold. I think I went there twice during the 45-minutes session. Whenever I entered that area, my glasses were filled with mist and I had to wipe them off.

There were a few rides. One could skate down the slope sitting on a round tube or lying down on a sledge. For kids, there is a smaller slope. One can know how it feels like to trek over the Himalayas by climbing a small similar setup here. Of course, I didn’t try any of these 🙂

There is a small igloo, there are a few polar bear & sea elephants, there are snow world dolls, there are houses, there are mountains, etc. These locations are great for taking nice photos and selfies. You can see most of them in the above-embedded video. BTW, our new friend narrates our travel story to the Snow Kingdom in the video – so don’t miss 🙂

I think the Snow Kingdom is best enjoyed during a hot afternoon in Chennai. Once you step out make sure to walk briskly to the shops at the neighboring VGP Golden Beach and drink a hot coffee/tea. You’ll need it 🙂

Destination Infinity

Timing: 10 A.M. to 8 P.M.; Open all 365 days. – My Honest Review (No Affiliate Links) is a recently released cloud-based app to create ‘3D & Animation videos’ (according to the makers). Since I bought the app on the first day of its release, I want to write a quick review (with advantages & limitations) of app from my experience of having worked with it for a couple of days, so that you can make an informed decision.

The most important thing – the jaw-dropping low price of around $30 USD (when I bought) and $35 USD (at the time of writing this article) does not include rights to sell the videos. If you want full rights to make and sell videos to clients with 3D avatars & text-to-speech, which is important for many, be prepared to buy their deluxe & agency plan also.

I paid around $130 USD (one-time first-day launch pricing) for Regular, Deluxe & Agency plans. Once I bought the regular plan, the other two were upsold to me immediately afterward. I was told that I will get extra templates every month, I can make videos for a longer duration (which is 6:00 min for the Agency plan – for the regular plan it’s 10x lower, it seems) and I can sell videos with 3D avatars to clients.

Now let me come to the actual utility. I am surprised that a 3D animation video maker app doesn’t support keyframing!! It does support tracks (similar to layers) which will allow you to create a basic animation/movie using the built-in photos, videos, background, 3D avatars, music, etc. But I feel keyframing is extremely critical for an animation app. Hope they’ll include this feature in the near future. Also, you cannot draw/move objects over time.

There are a few intros, outros, text effects and other templates that are useful. But right now there are just around ten to fifteen in each category. I would prefer a more exhaustive collection. Their other product (Viddyoze – I assume it is theirs) has a much better collection. They have promised to include a few more templates each month – let’s see.

I am really impressed with the 3D avatars, text-to-speech technology and lip syncing. If you have some application for this, buy this product without hesitation. Since I do, I don’t regret my purchase and am not going to use the 30-day money back guarantee. But if you want to make custom animations, I am not sure how helpful this app would be. The timeline supports just basic animation.

I am impressed with the text to speech feature and the voices included with this app are quite good. I wish the 3D avatars could be exported using a transparent background. Of course, I can upload my own videos (after compressing them with HandBrake) but I prefer working on other apps for animations.

Professional explainer videos will demand voice-overs by professionals, but since my videos are of a more casual nature, I am fine with the polished robotic voices. They have included multiple speakers in many languages, which is great. I wish I could export just the voice without the avatar.

I am using this app in conjunction with two more video creation apps – one desktop-based and the other cloud-based. Frankly, I like the desktop app more because there are no delays associated with uploading/ downloading/ rendering, etc. But most apps nowadays work in the cloud and we are expected to get used to the delays. However, Videobuilder didn’t freeze while I was working on it – I have experienced a few that have, before. I mailed the support on when one of my videos were not rendering. It was sorted in a few hours. So the support, at least for now, is responsive.

Altogether, a decent app for the launch special one-time price (Agency plan). I wish they were frank upfront about all the three plans they offer, cost, limitations. Why intimate clients about the limitations of the basic plans in the last minute? Also, I guess it’s fine to ignore the exact time left for the offer to end, on their launch page. The launch offer is still On even after a couple of days now while the timer indicated 1.5 hours left for me!!

If you are creating and selling videos, and if you have an application for the 3D avatars to narrate a few parts instead of using just text, this app will be useful to you.

Destination Infinity

Double Action

Yesterday, just for fun, we made a short video using the cloning/double action feature of Hitfilm 4 Express. Actually, I am learning that software for 3D Composting and VFX, but since I learned that I can also do a video edit with double action, I thought why not try making it and put some scene on FB… Here is the result –

This was my first attempt and video editing is totally new to me. I saw this tutorial and quickly finished shooting and editing in just more than a couple of hours on a lazy Saturday evening. It was easier than I expected.

Maybe because no one in my Facebook timeline has published a ‘double-action’ video like this, it (sorta) went viral after I uploaded it yesterday. So I thought why not share it on my blog too. Hope you like it, despite our instantaneously unprofessional attitude towards film-making 🙂

Destination Infinity

Dropouts make better Entrepreneurs? Absolutely.

Dropouts and below-average students at schools/colleges make better entrepreneurs and businesspeople. Period.

The Indian education system is… Forget it, education system anywhere is designed to produce disciplined slaves who are good at following rigid systems to complete tasks assigned to them. That’s exactly the trait expected of an employee.

Entrepreneurship is a different beast altogether that requires totally different skillsets. Foremost of them is the ability to take risks, not being afraid of failure and trying out new & innovative ways of doing things. These are exactly what education curriculums in schools and colleges discourage.

The prominent argument against this is: For every dropout who is a successful businessman, there are thousands of failures. These people, I feel, don’t realize that the crux of business is failing. And discovering newer ways to overcome failures.

A good businessperson, I feel, should not be able to stand nonsensical lectures and meaningless memorization to excel in useless examinations. No wonder good business people drop out. Or at least fail in exams.

I wish I too had dropped out of high school. Or at least college.

Sigh 🙁

Destination Infinity

Best time to book for Indian travellers’ favourite summer destinations

  • Book 24 weeks in advance for a European summer
  • 72% of Indian travellers don’t know how to get a good deal on flight tickets

New Delhi, 10th July 2017: Leading global travel search engine, Skyscanner has analysed two years’ worth of travel search data from over 60 million monthly users to answer the one question that always puzzles travellers: when is the best time to book flights?

A recent survey of Indian travellers revealed 72% do not know when is the best time to book flights. Skyscanner’s survey further unveiled 69% of travellers incorrectly estimate the best air fares can be found less than 12 weeks before departure, when in fact the best deals are snapped up by travellers who plan in advance. Traveller’s eyeing up Bali for their summer trip can save up to 51% on flight tickets by booking 25 weeks in advance or risk paying 27% more than the average fare when they leave booking to the last minute.

The same trend appears for air fares to Indian traveller’s favourite summer destinations, traveller’s looking to vacation in Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok can grab flights for 35% and 33% less than the average fare, respectively, when booking 24 weeks prior to departure.

Skyscanner recommends booking 24 weeks in advance for travellers venturing to Europe or the USA for their summer vacations for savings of 22% and 18%, respectively.

Skyscanner also reveals the most inexpensive months to travel to visit some of Indian travellers’ favourite locations. November is the cheapest month to travel to Bangkok when flights 10% cheaper than the average fare, while visa-friendly Bali can be best enjoyed in April with a 10% saving on the average fare.

Commenting on the findings, Reshmi Roy, Senior Growth Manager, Skyscanner India said, “We hope Skyscanner’s data can provide travellers with clarity on how and when to get the best deal on flights and what to expect if booking is left to the last minute. After reviewing flight prices from the last two years, we can clearly see that it pays to plan. Booking at the right time can make a huge difference to one’s expenditure on their trip, up to 51% in some cases.”


About Skyscanner

  • Skyscanner is a leading global travel search company, providing free search of flights, hotels and car hire around the world
  • Founded in 2003, Skyscanner helps over 60 million people each month to find their travel options
  • Skyscanner is available in 30 languages
  • Skyscanner’s highly-rated free mobile app has been downloaded over 60 million times
  • Skyscanner employs over 800 staff and has 10 offices across the world: Barcelona, Beijing, Budapest, Edinburgh, Glasgow, London, Miami, Shenzhen, Singapore and Sofia
  • Skyscanner is part of the Ctrip Group

For more information, please visit

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Thrill Valley Adventure Theme Park – Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu

Thrill Valley Adventure Theme Park @ Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, South India is a nice place to visit if you like adventure games/sports. However, my favorite activity at this park is the Petting Zoo 🙂

Yelagiri is a relatively small hill station (30 sq. KM) located at a low altitude of 1000m. So the place is not as cold as Ooty or Kodai. Luckily for people like me who are comfortable in warmer temperatures, this is the perfect hill station 🙂 It is also relatively close to Vellore and Chennai.

We went to the usual park and boating at Yelagiri, but those were not that interesting. Then we spotted the “Thrill Valley” adventure theme park board and decided to venture in. The gate was around 1 KM inside from the main road – we went in a car, but autos are available from the Nature Park/Punganoor lake entrance.

You can see the above-embedded slideshow to get a better idea about the activities available at Thrill Valley. As an adventure non-enthusiast, I liked the petting zoo and archery. But there are many adventure games in this park including the human slingshot, zurfing, zip line, ATV, zorbing & fwolang boats for kids, rope course, etc.

Although these activities (some of them not available anywhere else – at least not nearby) would attract younger adventure & games enthusiasts like students/friends coming in groups, we wished there were more activities for families and older individuals. Of course, this is an ‘adventure’ theme park and the management has done full justice to that theme.

This place is well staffed and the staff guided us well. Unlike in cities, there is not much crowd – hence no wasting time waiting in queues. Hope they would add a small canteen to buy food/drinks in the future.

Thrill Valley is a much-needed entertainment park in the quickly-becoming-popular hill station of Yelagiri, which even has a major railway junction (Jolarpet) near the foothills.

Destination Infinity

Causes for Extinction of Fancy Pigeons in Bangladesh

This is a guest post by Ashraful Kabir, Department of Biology, Saidpur Cantonment Public College, Nilphamari, Bangladesh. E-mail:


Summary: Out of 9 characteristics observed for the causes of fancy pigeons extinction in Bangladesh, natural causes account for 33.33% and artificial (man-made) causes were 66.67%. These nine characteristics and their probability of occurrence (in %) are:  Unequal squab – 40%, Aggressiveness – 50%, Homosexuality – 10%, Feed – 70%, Lack of farmers’ knowledge on pigeons – 80%, Bad collection – 80%, Non-selective breeding – 10%, Overall management – 80% and Diseases – 80%.



Animal psychology is called zoo psychology. Birds as well as pigeons show lot of stereotypic characteristics during rearing. Pigeons have peculiar features.

Tumbling, a kind of morbid curiosity is found in tumblers pigeon. Lotan is another breed which rolls with slight shaking. Lotan has abnormal flying. Highflying is very ancient characteristics of pigeons.  History says that when tumbler lost its flying it shows parlor rolling. This parlour roller in Asian subcontinent is called lotan (ground tumbler). In England this roller rolls automatically when it attempts to fly.


All fancy pigeons have evolved from rock pigeons. Due to its ancestral trait for living on trees sometimes indigenous pigeons live on trees with rock pigeons. Many rearers keep pigeons in unsuitable environments. They do not clean their farms regularly or properly. They do not take suggestions from the experts.


Diseases are also a cause for pigeon death.  Aggressive behavior in male pigeons is very dangerous. When female lays eggs and farmers try to catch the female or touch the eggs, it inadvertently flaps its wings and that results in breakage of eggs.


Most rearers don’t know the ideal marking of their desirable breed or not try to know the exact features of fancy breeds (Kabir 2014a). Their mode of non-judicious breeding is another cause or loss of its purity (Kabir 2015).



For this observation the breeds were indigenous, tumbler, lotan, fantail, mookee, Australian red (in Bangladesh this is called parvin), capuchine, montauban (in Bangladesh this is called bombai) etc. were considered.



Natural causes

Homosexuality: Pigeons pair with Male-male and female-female. In cases of male-male pairing, there is no egg. Female-female pairing results in eggs. But when these eggs are laid in different times,  rearer can’t understand which of them laid eggs. Due to homosexuality, its numbers are decreasing.

Unequal squab:  Pigeons and doves produce unequal squab naturally. One is more/seriously week by birth. So, in many cases, one dies within a few days. This is a cause for its extinction.

Aggressive behavior: Males are very aggressive with female, other squab, even fight with other males. During the time of feeding these incidents are common. Due to its captivity for a long time also this may happen. After laying alternatively use of those pairs could get rid of such problems. Also, by providing less energetic feed this bad situation may disappear. Squabs in nest are victimized by adult males. Attacks have been observed on the head and eyes. Hand reared pigeons show lot of attachments as well as bad habits (Nice 1950).


Artificial (man-made) causes

Lack of knowledge:  Most rearers of Bangladesh have no real knowledge on fancy pigeon but have been rearing pigeons for a long time. Most have outdated ideas about pigeons. Moreover, in Bangladesh, this is just a hobby. People buy a pigeon and when it dies, buy again.

Collection: In Bangladesh rearers collect pigeons by seeing external features like colour and size. They can’t match the bloodline with its parents. They don’t know the ideal markings of fancy pigeons. There is a need to maintain a grading system for fancy pigeons while buying (Kabir 2014a).

Feed: Most rearers supply low-quality feed which is not good for its health. Pigeons need different feed, depending on the time – egg laying time, hatching time, juvenile and breeding time, etc. The feed ratio/quantity should also be varied. Rearers generally supply same quality of feed.


Many breeders of Bangladesh separate their pigeons in October and join them for mating in April (Kabir 2013b). Crossbred is good as meat (Kabir 2013a). ‘Top quality’ and ‘quality’ – these two types of feed are needed to ensure better lifespan for pigeons ( Squab or parental stock selling is more profitable (Hazard 1922). There is no alternative for pigeon milk but 16% blend chicken crumble may be provided for squab in morning and night (Casey 1988). Good feed ration during pre-laying/hatching/suckling stages is corn 6 kg, wheat 4 kg, rape 2.5 kg, Japanese millet 0.5 kg, broiler feed 1 kg, mustard 250 g and green pea 0.5 kg (Kabir 2013a).

Non-selective breeding: Non-scientific breeding is very common in Bangladesh. That’s another reason why pigeon breeds are losing their purity (Kabir 2015).

Overall management: Every pigeon breed requires a different management system. Broiler pigeon, fantail pigeons, pouter pigeon, tumbler pigeons and indigenous pigeons all are different and need different management approaches. Sometimes non-mating females lay eggs at any place of the chamber (Craig 1913). Male always initiates for egg laying, nesting and incubation (Levi 1941).

Diseases: Very narrow space, lack of flying, poor ventilation, lack of cleanliness is the main source of several diseases (Echols 2010). Diseases are one of the major problems for pigeons in Bangladesh. Rearers don’t take enough help from veterinary doctors. In winter season lot of pigeons die due to diseases. In Bangladesh, twisted neck and salmonellosis are two serious diseases affecting pigeons. When pigeons are sick they are treated in common/traditional ways which are mostly wrong (Kabir 2014b).




                                              Figure: Indian Fantail (both are male)




Diagram 1. Showing the causes (%) of pigeons’ extinction



Casey V. 1988. Hand feeding fancy pigeons. San Martin CA.

Craig W. 1913. The stimulation and inhibition of ovulation in birds. Journ. Anim. Behavior 3: 215-221.

Echols MS. 2010. Captive bird welfare and enrichment (part 1-4). AAVAC/UEPV Annual Conference Hobart 129-200.

Hazard FA. 1922. Profitable pigeon breeding. American Pigeon Journal Company.

Kabir MA. 2013a. Productivity of crossed indigenous pigeon in semi intensive system. Basic Res. J. Agric. Sci. Rev. 2(1): 01-04 pp.

Kabir MA. 2013b. Productivity, management and marketing of pigeons in pet shop. J. Agric. Econ. Dev. 2(4): 147-153.

Kabir MA. 2014a. Grading system of ten common fancy pigeons of Bangladesh. Integrated J. of British 1(1): 19-26.

Kabir MA. 2014b. Symptomatic treatments of some common diseases of fancy pigeons in Bangladesh. Acme J. of Animal Science, Livestock Production and Animal Breeding 1(1): 1-4.

Kabir MA. 2015. Selective breeding of pigeons in Bangladesh. Journal of Advanced Studies in Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Sciences 2(2): 1-6.

Levi WM. 1941. The Pigeons. (R. I. Bryan Co., Columbia, S. C.), 512 pp.

Nice MM. 1950. Development of a Redwing (Agelaius phoeniceus). Wilson Bull., 62: 87-93.

What to do with Suddenly Discovered Old Currency Notes?

Most of us keep currency notes at multiple places around the home. Sometimes just for storage (that we remember) but sometimes to keep it securely so that we can use them during emergencies, etc. It’s normal to forget about the latter until it gets discovered accidentally. It’s generally a pleasant surprise, then.

But now, with the demonetization that happened so quickly, in spite of our best efforts to locate all the currency notes around the house, it’s only human to miss certain notes. It’s again human to discover them after a while – a few months or a few years later.

I can understand if the Govt. doesn’t want to exchange a large sum of money. We ourselves won’t keep and forget huge money somewhere. But what if, we recover some money that’s not large, but not too small to ignore either? For the normal not-so-rich junta, I mean.

Don’t you think there should be a way to exchange these old demonetized currencies?

Even if we assume that it is unaccounted money (it’s not, in most cases) why can’t the Govt./Banks deduct the highest possible income tax (30%) and give back at least the remaining money in new currency notes?

Otherwise, all that old money is not only a loss for the people but also a loss for the Indian Government.

I hope and wish the Govt. will bring in some law to enable us to exchange these old notes. If they want, they could impose a small fine and upper limit. But not accepting them at all is getting too strict. Don’t you think?

Destination Infinity

PS: This post is not against Govt. policies, but is a representation of the problem faced by common man in the hope that Govt. will address them at some point.

An Epic Trip to our Ancestral Hometown (Ramayapatnam)

Recently, around 43 people from four branches of our ‘Kollu’ family tree decided to visit our Ancestral village – Ramayapatnam, near Kavali/Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India. This is the village where our grandfather’s father lived.

I have not been to Ramayapatnam before but I have heard many stories about this village from my grandmother. So I wanted to visit our ancestral place at least once and came up with the idea we could all visit our Ancestral place together. Elder family members were impressed with the idea and brought it to fruition : )

It’s one thing to visit a place, but it’s another thing to meet many distant relatives at one place — some of whom I have seen many years ago and some I am seeing for the first time.

We went to our Ancestral home at Ramayapatnam, but people who live there were out of station so we could just see it from outside. We performed some poojas in our Ancestral Temple and also visited our Ancestral beach 😉

We were surprised to know that this village has beach resorts. To add to our surprise, these beach resorts were all booked during the weekend we visited and we had to stay in the nearby town – Kavili for the night!

Almost everyone knew our great-grandfather’s family who stayed there before 3-4 decades. They even knew the names of our grandfathers – a couple whom even made it to this reunion 🙂 I think it’s important to keep in touch with our roots – it’s because of them we are here.

I feel this was an epic trip because four generations of people from three different states and four towns agreed to travel and meet at one place. If you live in the city, you know how difficult this can be – especially during these times as families are distributed all around the world.

Destination Infinity

PS: Don’t forget to watch the photo slideshow video embedded above with the highlights of this trip.

PS-2: Since we are settled in Chennai for three generations, we don’t even mention the name of our ancestral village – when asked. But now we can 🙂

Gharial (GAVIALIS GANGETICUS) Update in Bangladesh

This is a guest post by M Ashraful Kabir – Department of Biology, Saidpur Cantt Public College, Bangladesh. E-mail: 

At three zoos in Bangladesh, there are a few gharials but they are living with the same sex. In Gazipur Safari Park it’s almost the same scenario. In some recreational parks, there are Gharials but are not productive.

If we ensure in-situ conservation in zoos and safari parks via captive breeding, there is a good chance that their numbers will increase. 

In Bangladesh, development-related activities are the major cause for the decline in gharial population. River bank erosion and Sand mining beside the river induces fear in gharials. River traffic and fishing should be restricted to conserve gharial of Bangladesh. If possible we should introduce modern technology immediately to see its number increase.

A big seminar, symposium, and meetings don’t often lead to a solution. Insecticides and other chemicals in fields are another cause for the extinction of gharials. Lack or research fund is also a problem. In Bangladesh, a few independent researchers are working towards conservation of gharials. Awareness, which is currently lacking, should increase in this field.

Table 1.Male-Female ratio (1:1) Gharial in Bangladesh

Gharials Male Female Total
Rajshahi 3 3
Rangpur 4 4
Dhaka 4 4
Gazipur 1 1
Total 5 7 12

Source:  ProthomAlo, 20 April 2016


Gharials belong to the order crocodilia and are the only member under the family gharialidae. These are the largest animals in crocodilian, their average length being 11-15ft.

In Bangladesh, due to environmental pollution, their number is decreasing and only 5 of them were found in 2015 (red data book, IUCN Bangladesh). We need to immediately take effective steps for conservation of this nice animal. In our zoos, if we arrange for its captive breeding surely its number will increase.

Gharial and False Gharial (Tomistoma) are genetically close relatives (Janke et al 2005). Taxon is found in padma, jamuna and tista rivers in the northern parts of Bangladesh (Khan 1992; 2015). Estimated total population in 1957-1990=52, 1991-2000=32, 2000-2002=1 young (sarker et al 2003). Padma river of Rajshahi in the year 2009-2010=9, 2010-2011=7, 2011-2012=5 were found (Rashid et al 2014).

Females lay 10-96 eggs (average 60), hatch 72-96 days at 32-340 C (Daniel 2002). This is both diurnal and nocturnal. Gharial telemetry project was initiated to investigate 2007-08 mass dying of gharials – 110+ individuals in the lower Chambal river, large basking aggregations form in December and January. This 2007/08 die-off of 113 sub adult in Chambal C riverine of India was mainly due to nephrotoxin (Whitaker et al 2008).

In late June 2008 with assistance from WWF-India, the Madras crocodile bank trust and the gharial conservation alliance received ministry of environment and forests and state government’s permissions to capture, radio-tag and monitor up to 30 wild gharials. A subsequent tagging in March 9 resulted in 10 animals being tagged. Another 10 were tagged in November 2010. At present 5 gharials are still being tracked into 2013 for the 2010 group.

Its mating season is mid-February. Nesting is late-march to early-April. Eggs incubate for 2 months and hatch early-mid June. Eggs/hatchlings mortality rate is over 50% at most rearing facilities. Wild hatchlings indicate that they benefit from pre-monsoon ambient temperature and begin feeding on live fish after hatching. There is a need to accumulate accurate knowledge on gharial ecology.

Toxicity in fishes and cold weather are among the causes for its death (Lang and Kumar 2013). Fishermen kill crocodiles and monitor lizards eat its eggs (Stevenson and Whitaker 2010). It is one of the largest living crocodilians (males up to 6 m, average weight 160 kg).

It is one of the largest living crocodilians (males up to 6 m, average weight 160 kg) (Densemore 1943; Wilis et al 2007). Adults do not have the ability to walk in a semi-upright stance as other crocodilians do (bustard and Singh 1978; Whitaker and basu 1983). The presence of the species in the Irrawaddy River in Myanmar has also been reported (smith 1931).

The ghara of males are used for mating with females (Martin and Bellairs 1977). Females get maturity once they grow upto 3 m long.

From less than 200 gharials worldwide in 1974, surveys in 1997/98 in India and Nepal indicated total numbers had increased to around 1675 (ENVIS 1999), of which 436 were adults (anon 2006). However surveys in 2006 showed that the population had dropped to less than 200 breeding adults and the total population was estimated to be approximately 834 (Andrews 2006; data collected by RK Sharma 2005, 2006; Boullard and Cadi 2005; LAK Singh Pers. Comm; Tirtha Maskey, Pers. Comm.). Human influences on riverine habitat for sand –mining, agriculture, irrigation, dam, barrage, to create loss of gharial habitat. From Bhutan ghariasl are extinct, some in India and in Nepal only 35 individuals

Human influences on riverine habitat for sand–mining, agriculture, irrigation, dam, barrage, etc. creates a loss of habitat for gharials. In Bhutan, gharials are extinct. Only a few are there in India and in Nepal – around 35 (IUCN 2009). No gharials are available in Pakistan, and in Myanmar, their number is not verified.  In India in 1975-1982 released 879 gharials. It is hoped that the crocodile breeding and management training institute, situated at Hyderabad (

In India, surveys during 1975-1982 indicated 879 gharials. It is hoped that the crocodile breeding and management training institute, situated at Hyderabad would contribute actively in increasing their numbers (Rao et al 1995).


  • We should count the population of gharial (IUCN Bangladesh 2015 only 5)
  • Need to identify its habitat (only Rajshahi Padma river)
  • Make a plan for conservation (circular for wildlife conservation from various schools/colleges)
  • Through active action plan in zoos/safari park by in-situ conservation for captive breeding
  • Need large space
  • It needs pollution free water
  • Regulate temperature for breeding zone
  • Gharial expert
  • Emphasis on research
  • Interested teachers of various colleges could manage part-time jobs in their area of expertise
  • Apply for fund to WWF or IUCN



Lang JW and kumar P. 2013. Behavioral ecology of gharial in the Chambal river, India. IUCN-SSC specialist Group IUCN; gland, Switzerland.

Hornaday WT. 1885. Two years in the jungle. Charles Scribner’s Sons, NY, pp. 39-57.

Kennion IA. 1921. Crocodile shooting in Nepal. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 28: 291.

Khan MAR. 1979. Gharial extinct in Bangladesh. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter., 1:2.

Maskey TM, Percival HF, Abercrombie CL. 1995. Gharial habitat use in Nepal. J. Herpetol., 29(3): 463-464.

Rao CJ. 1933. Gavial on the Indus. J. Sind Nat Hist Soc., 1(4): 37.

Sharma R, Basu D. 2004. Recent reversals in the population trends in the population of gharial on the national Chambal sanctuary in north India; implications and a suggested strategy for the conservation one of the world’s most endangered crocodilians. In crocodile specialist group Crocodiles proceedings of the 17th working meeting at the crocodile specialist group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 180-186.

Short WHO 1921. A few hints on crocodile shooting. J. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc., 29: 77.

Singh LAK. 1991. Distribution of Gavialis gangeticus. Hamadryad, 16 (1and 2): 39-46.

Whitaker R. 1976. Ghavial survey report. Mimeographed report for the New York, Zool. Soc., pp. 1-19.

Whitaker R. and Basu D. 1983. The Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). A review. J. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc., 79(3): 531-548.

Maskey TM. 1999. Status and conservation of Gharial in Nepal. ENVIS, Wildlife and Protected Areas, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun, 2(1): 95-99.

Faizuddin M. 1985. Distribution, abundance and conservation of Gharials in Bangladesh. Tiger paper 12(3): 22-23.

Andrews H. 2006. Status of the Indian Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), conservation action and assessment of key locations in north India. Report of Madras Crocodile Bank Trust.

Francis R. 1910. The Broad-snouted Mugger in the Indus. J. Bombay Nat Hist Soc., 20: 1160.

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