Gharial (GAVIALIS GANGETICUS) Update in Bangladesh

This is a guest post by M Ashraful Kabir – Department of Biology, Saidpur Cantt Public College, Bangladesh. E-mail: 

At three zoos in Bangladesh, there are a few gharials but they are living with the same sex. In Gazipur Safari Park it’s almost the same scenario. In some recreational parks, there are Gharials but are not productive.

If we ensure in-situ conservation in zoos and safari parks via captive breeding, there is a good chance that their numbers will increase. 

In Bangladesh, development-related activities are the major cause for the decline in gharial population. River bank erosion and Sand mining beside the river induces fear in gharials. River traffic and fishing should be restricted to conserve gharial of Bangladesh. If possible we should introduce modern technology immediately to see its number increase.

A big seminar, symposium, and meetings don’t often lead to a solution. Insecticides and other chemicals in fields are another cause for the extinction of gharials. Lack or research fund is also a problem. In Bangladesh, a few independent researchers are working towards conservation of gharials. Awareness, which is currently lacking, should increase in this field.

Table 1.Male-Female ratio (1:1) Gharial in Bangladesh

Gharials Male Female Total
Rajshahi 3 3
Rangpur 4 4
Dhaka 4 4
Gazipur 1 1
Total 5 7 12

Source:  ProthomAlo, 20 April 2016


Gharials belong to the order crocodilia and are the only member under the family gharialidae. These are the largest animals in crocodilian, their average length being 11-15ft.

In Bangladesh, due to environmental pollution, their number is decreasing and only 5 of them were found in 2015 (red data book, IUCN Bangladesh). We need to immediately take effective steps for conservation of this nice animal. In our zoos, if we arrange for its captive breeding surely its number will increase.

Gharial and False Gharial (Tomistoma) are genetically close relatives (Janke et al 2005). Taxon is found in padma, jamuna and tista rivers in the northern parts of Bangladesh (Khan 1992; 2015). Estimated total population in 1957-1990=52, 1991-2000=32, 2000-2002=1 young (sarker et al 2003). Padma river of Rajshahi in the year 2009-2010=9, 2010-2011=7, 2011-2012=5 were found (Rashid et al 2014).

Females lay 10-96 eggs (average 60), hatch 72-96 days at 32-340 C (Daniel 2002). This is both diurnal and nocturnal. Gharial telemetry project was initiated to investigate 2007-08 mass dying of gharials – 110+ individuals in the lower Chambal river, large basking aggregations form in December and January. This 2007/08 die-off of 113 sub adult in Chambal C riverine of India was mainly due to nephrotoxin (Whitaker et al 2008).

In late June 2008 with assistance from WWF-India, the Madras crocodile bank trust and the gharial conservation alliance received ministry of environment and forests and state government’s permissions to capture, radio-tag and monitor up to 30 wild gharials. A subsequent tagging in March 9 resulted in 10 animals being tagged. Another 10 were tagged in November 2010. At present 5 gharials are still being tracked into 2013 for the 2010 group.

Its mating season is mid-February. Nesting is late-march to early-April. Eggs incubate for 2 months and hatch early-mid June. Eggs/hatchlings mortality rate is over 50% at most rearing facilities. Wild hatchlings indicate that they benefit from pre-monsoon ambient temperature and begin feeding on live fish after hatching. There is a need to accumulate accurate knowledge on gharial ecology.

Toxicity in fishes and cold weather are among the causes for its death (Lang and Kumar 2013). Fishermen kill crocodiles and monitor lizards eat its eggs (Stevenson and Whitaker 2010). It is one of the largest living crocodilians (males up to 6 m, average weight 160 kg).

It is one of the largest living crocodilians (males up to 6 m, average weight 160 kg) (Densemore 1943; Wilis et al 2007). Adults do not have the ability to walk in a semi-upright stance as other crocodilians do (bustard and Singh 1978; Whitaker and basu 1983). The presence of the species in the Irrawaddy River in Myanmar has also been reported (smith 1931).

The ghara of males are used for mating with females (Martin and Bellairs 1977). Females get maturity once they grow upto 3 m long.

From less than 200 gharials worldwide in 1974, surveys in 1997/98 in India and Nepal indicated total numbers had increased to around 1675 (ENVIS 1999), of which 436 were adults (anon 2006). However surveys in 2006 showed that the population had dropped to less than 200 breeding adults and the total population was estimated to be approximately 834 (Andrews 2006; data collected by RK Sharma 2005, 2006; Boullard and Cadi 2005; LAK Singh Pers. Comm; Tirtha Maskey, Pers. Comm.). Human influences on riverine habitat for sand –mining, agriculture, irrigation, dam, barrage, to create loss of gharial habitat. From Bhutan ghariasl are extinct, some in India and in Nepal only 35 individuals

Human influences on riverine habitat for sand–mining, agriculture, irrigation, dam, barrage, etc. creates a loss of habitat for gharials. In Bhutan, gharials are extinct. Only a few are there in India and in Nepal – around 35 (IUCN 2009). No gharials are available in Pakistan, and in Myanmar, their number is not verified.  In India in 1975-1982 released 879 gharials. It is hoped that the crocodile breeding and management training institute, situated at Hyderabad (

In India, surveys during 1975-1982 indicated 879 gharials. It is hoped that the crocodile breeding and management training institute, situated at Hyderabad would contribute actively in increasing their numbers (Rao et al 1995).


  • We should count the population of gharial (IUCN Bangladesh 2015 only 5)
  • Need to identify its habitat (only Rajshahi Padma river)
  • Make a plan for conservation (circular for wildlife conservation from various schools/colleges)
  • Through active action plan in zoos/safari park by in-situ conservation for captive breeding
  • Need large space
  • It needs pollution free water
  • Regulate temperature for breeding zone
  • Gharial expert
  • Emphasis on research
  • Interested teachers of various colleges could manage part-time jobs in their area of expertise
  • Apply for fund to WWF or IUCN



Lang JW and kumar P. 2013. Behavioral ecology of gharial in the Chambal river, India. IUCN-SSC specialist Group IUCN; gland, Switzerland.

Hornaday WT. 1885. Two years in the jungle. Charles Scribner’s Sons, NY, pp. 39-57.

Kennion IA. 1921. Crocodile shooting in Nepal. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 28: 291.

Khan MAR. 1979. Gharial extinct in Bangladesh. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter., 1:2.

Maskey TM, Percival HF, Abercrombie CL. 1995. Gharial habitat use in Nepal. J. Herpetol., 29(3): 463-464.

Rao CJ. 1933. Gavial on the Indus. J. Sind Nat Hist Soc., 1(4): 37.

Sharma R, Basu D. 2004. Recent reversals in the population trends in the population of gharial on the national Chambal sanctuary in north India; implications and a suggested strategy for the conservation one of the world’s most endangered crocodilians. In crocodile specialist group Crocodiles proceedings of the 17th working meeting at the crocodile specialist group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 180-186.

Short WHO 1921. A few hints on crocodile shooting. J. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc., 29: 77.

Singh LAK. 1991. Distribution of Gavialis gangeticus. Hamadryad, 16 (1and 2): 39-46.

Whitaker R. 1976. Ghavial survey report. Mimeographed report for the New York, Zool. Soc., pp. 1-19.

Whitaker R. and Basu D. 1983. The Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). A review. J. Bombay Nat. Hist Soc., 79(3): 531-548.

Maskey TM. 1999. Status and conservation of Gharial in Nepal. ENVIS, Wildlife and Protected Areas, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun, 2(1): 95-99.

Faizuddin M. 1985. Distribution, abundance and conservation of Gharials in Bangladesh. Tiger paper 12(3): 22-23.

Andrews H. 2006. Status of the Indian Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), conservation action and assessment of key locations in north India. Report of Madras Crocodile Bank Trust.

Francis R. 1910. The Broad-snouted Mugger in the Indus. J. Bombay Nat Hist Soc., 20: 1160.

Kabir MA. (unpubl). Research limitations in Bangladesh.

Anon 2006. Red list assessment for the gharial. Submitted to the IUCN red list authority by CSG.

Bustard HR and Singh LAK 1978. Studies on the Indian Gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin)(Reptilia: Crocodilian). Change in terrestrial locomotory pattern with age. J of Bombay Nat Hist Soc. 74: 534-536.

Boullard JM and Cadi A. 2005. Gharial conservation in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Dept. of national parks and wildlife conservation and WWF: Nepal.

Densmore III LD 1983. Biochemical and immunological systematic of the order crocodilian. Evolutionary Biology 16: 397-465.

ENVIS (wildlife and protected areas)(1999). Volume 2(1). Wildlife Institute of India: Dehra Dun.

IUCN 2009. IUCN red list of threatened species. Ver. 2009.1 (; viewed 30 September 2009.

Smith MA 1931. Loricata, testudines. In the fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilian and Amphibian. Vol I. Taylor and Francis: London.

Willis RE. McAliley LR, Neeley ED. and Densmore III LD 2007. Evidence for placing the False Gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) into the family Gavialidae: inferences from nuclear gene sequences, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43: 787-794.

Rao RJ, Basu D, Hasan SM, Sharma BB, Molur S, Walker S, Editors 1995. Population and habitat viability assessment (PHVA). Workshop for Gharial. Study at Jiwaji University, Gwalior

Stevenson C and Whitaker R. 2010. Indian Gharial Gavialis gangeticus.

Being More Indian: Arranged Marriage

I consider arranged marriages to be an Indian phenomenon. Of course, it exists in other countries also, but Indian arranged marriages are unique – don’t you think?

As you all know I got married the arranged marriage way.

It’s not that I was against love marriage or anything. In fact, I fell in love as early as 5th Std. And that was the second time.

But the issue is, for a lazy guy like me, I expect a girl to walk into my house with a bouquet full of roses, knock the door, come inside my room and propose to me as I am working on my computer. Of course, I could turn my head towards her for a short while 😛

Now you have an idea how unrealistic my expectations on this topic can be.

Obviously, with such unimaginable hopes (for others), ‘love’ never happened in my life 🙂

So the only option available to me (practically) was arranged marriage. In this institution, the best thing I like is, the bridegroom doesn’t have to do much. Parents bring the profiles, I shortlist them. Parents talk to potential bride’s families, I just need to talk once to the bride. Parents fix engagement, marriage, etc., I just need to be there.

In many ways, arranged marriage was made for people like me 🙂

Although there is this enormous risk of marrying and living with a person about whom you don’t know much, somehow the majority of the arranged marriages click. At least in our circle, it does.

I was also fortunate to get a wife whom I (later) realized was a very good match for me, without being sure about it before the marriage.

Marriage has made me a more balanced and a more confident person. In fact, my life transformed from black & white to colour, bubbles & bells – literally. Don’t believe me? See the short video below for proof  😀

Destination Infinity

This post was written for a contest sponsored by Lufthansa, the German airline company that owns the world’s second largest fleet of airplanes. As a part of their #MoreIndiaThanYouThink strategy, they greet their (Indian) passengers with a traditional namaste, they serve Indian meals & chai, they also provide Indian content – films, news & music to flight passengers. Have a look at their #MoreIndianThanYouThink initiatives from here. Also, don’t miss the below embedded Lufthansa TVC –


How to Keep Mosquitoes Away (Outdoor Mosquito Repellent)

Good Knight Fabric Roll On is a product brought to you by Godrej that’ll help keep mosquitoes away from kids (and adults), even in outdoors and large spaces. All you need to do is apply four coin sized dots of this liquid on any kind of fabric you wear – that’s it, mosquitoes will be repelled away from you or your kids for up to 8 hours.

Good Knight Fabric Roll On is a natural outdoor mosquito repellent made of citronella & eucalyptus oil that are known for keeping mosquitoes away. The company says since this product uses citronella & eucalyptus oil for mosquitoes, it is made using plant-based oils – hence is 100% natural.

You’ll find some natural pungent when applied – if you find the smell a bit too strong, just apply it in areas away from the nose. The company says it is safe to use it on the skin as well, but it’s best to apply on a fabric. It seems the Good Knight Fabric Roll On doesn’t leave any stains on clothes and can be applied on any kind of fabric including silk, khadi, windcheater, and even bedsheets!

Family members might find it useful while going on outdoor trips like trekking, camping, beaches, mountains, etc. Or even in regular hotel rooms where mosquito repellents may not be available. It seems this product works even if you happen to walk in rains! It works on pets also – you can apply it on the collar fabric for dogs, for example.

Priced at around Rs. 75, one bottle is expected to last for 60 days if used on one person (four dots), every day. You can buy this mosquito repellent online from websites like Amazon or you can buy it from a nearby departmental store.

Good Knight Roll On

Why do ‘Modern’ Hospitals have ‘Centralized’ AC?

I understand that with modernity creeping its head everywhere, people expect more comfort nowadays at every available opportunity. But don’t you think having centralized Air Conditioning in hospitals is actually taking it too far?

I mean, I am OK with having centralized AC at hotels, theaters, malls, and even schools. But in ‘modern’ hospitals, where people come because they are sick (often with fever, flu, cold and other such ailments that are averse to anything cold), do we really need an AC?

These hospitals, irrespective of whether the doctors are free or not, make patients wait for 1-3 hours on average – even with prior appointment. If you’ve ever been to one of these hospitals, you’ll realize that after one or two hours, that AC can get really COLD. They don’t even regulate the temperature of the AC!

Frankly, we don’t go to certain movie theaters because they don’t regulate ACs and it gets too cold. That is during normal times. But having centralized ACs at hospitals and not regulating the temperature – don’t you think this is too much? Why can’t the ACs be restricted to ‘deluxe’ rooms where patients want it?

Destination Infinity

Is Durability in Mobile Phones NOT Valued any longer?

Don’t confuse durability with quality. All products need to be quality products to succeed in the market.  Durability refers to the longevity of the product life. How long we are able to use the product, i.e.

A few years back, both quality and durability were considered important factors to buy a product. But with mobile phones and a few other electronic gadgets, I wonder if durability is valued any longer.

That is because, new phones with latest features and higher capacity is released so frequently nowadays that my mobile phone was already obsolete the moment I bought it!

Nowadays, at least once in a year, I look for reasons to upgrade to the latest mobile. I can just buy a new phone, but I — like many others — have this need to justify a new purchase.

Now, what if, the mobile phone stops working or develops some technical issue just after the first year of warranty? That would give me the perfect reason to buy a new phone – won’t it?

That’s why I have started thinking that durability, at least in mobile phones and a few other similar gadgets, may be a minus point.

Actually, I had one HTC phone that I used for almost 6-years. While I did not incur the financial losses of having to buy a new mobile, I did have to drop my face when everyone around me were showing off their latest mobiles with latest features. My phone was working perfectly, and hence I didn’t have a good enough reason to change it!

Same happened with my Toshiba laptop. While I wanted to upgrade to a better processor, RAM and storage capacity, the old one would just not stop functioning.

In both the above cases, losing my patience after sometime, I just went ahead and bought a new mobile and laptop although the old ones were working fine. That damn HTC phone is still working!!

If vendors can include an auto-kill switch or something in every gadget which will enable us to kill it at will, it will be great. That way, there’ll be no need to justify a new purchase to ourselves or others. What do you think? 😀

Destination Infinity

My First ‘Party’ Experience (Vegetarian & Non-Alcoholic!!)


On the new year’s eve, someone in my house decided that we should go to a New Year party. Since we’ve never been to any, I said OK but with a condition – they should not serve liquor and they should serve vegetarian food. Actually, my idea was to cancel the party indirectly.

But as luck would have it, there was a New Year’s party in Chennai that fulfilled both my criterion. It was the Kala Chasma party and was organized by Deccan Plaza hotel @ Royapettah, Chennai. We spoke to the organizer and they told us that there was a separate kids area, they would play Bollywood songs, they would serve Jain food. That ticked a few more check boxes and we booked the tickets for us and some cousins.


Upon entering they gave us the above-shown ticket and tied a band around our hands. We then proceeded to the starters area. Here, we had some snacks like popcorn, sevu, cutlet, corn, masala-cola & pina colada by bisleri, rose milk and (believe it or not) podi idly!! I relished that podi idly and refilled my plate multiple times with only that 🙂

Then there was a kids’ area with a few games. We could also take selfies. We also took one with wigs provided by them. Here it is 😀 😛 😀


The dinner buffet was OK but there was too much crowd. Fortunately we went early and were able to get food soon, but people who came later had to stand in long queues. There was not much place to stand and eat as well. I think the hotel should have imposed a restriction on the maximum no. of people who can attend.


The main place of the party was the ‘Dance Floor’. I have never danced much, not even in my college days. How can I dance now? Fortunately, since many in the crowd were dancing and since the DJ/Music helped, we too danced (tried to dance) for sometime. But for most of the time, we were watching and enjoying 🙂

BTW, here is a short video from the dance floor –



I guess these parties are for younger people, but there were many middle-aged people also who came with their family. Altogether this was a different experience and we would probably cherish that wig-photo for a long time to come 🙂

Destination Infinity


Indian Ethnic/Wedding Wear for Men: Manyavar

Going back to roots seems to be the trend nowadays. Be it organic food, be it yoga/ayurveda, be it dressing.

I don’t like fashionable dresses much – jeans, tie, suit, shoes… just name a fashion accessory for men and none of them impressed me.

But ethnic wear made a lasting impression even on me. There is something about a Kurta or a Sherwani. They make men stand out. It’s probably because of that reason we see men wearing traditional dresses in many marriages and important functions, nowadays.

I wish more men wear ethnic wear or Indo-Western to office, outings, etc. Personally, I like anything that makes me stand out. I would love to wear a kurta or a sherwani to office just because not many people do!

Anyway, what you need to know is: Manyavar is THE PLACE to shop online trendy men’s wedding wear and accessories including sherwani, kurta, brooch, safa, juti, kilangi, mala, scarf etc.

Have a look at a few dresses/accessories from their collection. You can click on the below links to see more dresses from each category.







Have a look at Manyavar’s store locator to locate the nearest Indian ethnic wear/wedding wear store in your city.

Destination Infinity

Surprise Gift we Ordered from is a portal in India where you can order gifts for anyone in India, Online. Actually, I wanted to surprise my wife by ordering a gift that would be delivered to her without her knowledge.

But considering my dearth of gift ideas and the lack of experience in selecting the perfect gift, I thought it would be best to allow her to do the selecting part. Ya, the surprise element will not be there, but I thought at least she can select the gift that she likes.

She spent sometime browsing the various gifts and selected a couple of gifts. Aren’t you curious to see what gifts she selected?

gift ideas

jewellery box & pillow with a custom-designed pillow cover. 

I think she found the jewellery box beautiful, so do I. I like the concept of a custom pillow cover. The design on the left side of the cover was already present and we uploaded the picture which has come on the right side. Actually, that picture was taken at a ceremony on the day of our marriage. I added our names and the heart for ‘special effects’ 😉

We then proceeded to checkout and completed the order without much of a hassle. For some reason, we got a mail from IGP that our photo was not properly uploaded. So, we replied to the mail with another copy of the photo.

In about three days (I think), we got the above two gifts delivered at our doorstep via courier. I am not sure if there is an option to gift-wrap the objects – ours came without it. It would be nice if there is or if they could add an option in the future.

Altogether, our experience with IGP was positive and I would definitely consider ordering gifts online, especially on occasions and places where I cannot be physically present.

BTW, I have changed my blog theme. I have installed the latest Twenty Seventeen official theme released by WordPress. Visit the homepage and let me know how it looks 🙂

Destination Infinity

AK, I hope you are able to read my blog on all browsers now 😛 🙂

Disclaimer: offered me a voucher for Rs. 1000 and asked me to select any gift for myself or someone else, and write about my experience in my blog. Since I am NEVER the person to say NO to freebies, I readily accepted the offer 😉

.blog Domain Names available to register from WordPress!!

.blog domain names are now available to register from our beloved WordPress 🙂 Visit to get your domain name today!

Since WordPress has provided us with an amazing free blog CMS software to use all these years, I thought why not write about their new service and create some buzz. Especially when it could be useful to many bloggers.

The yearly $30 USD asking price is a bit steep when compared to .in or even .com domains, but considering that you can get a short neat .blog domain of your choosing now, it may not be that bad a price to pay. As a blogger, I am sure many will prefer a .blog domain for their blog.

Personally, I don’t know if I am going to buy another domain (I already own four). But would love to have a .blog domain in my arsenal. Let’s see 😉

What about you? Any plans to buy a domain name for your blog? If you need help setting up a domain on your blog (Blogger, or Self-hosted WordPress), let me know. It’s simpler than you think 🙂

Destination Infinity

XENDER, A Mobile File Transfer App Clocks in 170 Million Users


Xender is a comprehensive mobile app for all file sharing needs. It allows users to share any type of file, at any time, without using any mobile data. Xender supports Android, IOS, Windows, PC/ Mac cross-platform transferring with over 200 times Bluetooth transfer speed. Xender currently supports over 22 languages including English, Hindi, Arabic, Chinese Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Thai and Bengali. For its Indian users, XENDER has added a choice of 12 kinds of India dialect. Let’s XENDER it!

As a popular file transfer and sharing application , XENDER has announced that it has reached 50% market share in India in the crowded file transfer market. XENDER has clocked in 170 million Indian users over the last three years alone with an annual growth rate of over 100%. XENDER has long maintained a leading position in mobile sharing tool market, well known for its fast transfer, convenient using and zero cost.New slogan, new concept,new logo,Let’s XENDER it!

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XENDER also announced the launch of its new logo for Indian audience on the auspicious occasion of Diwali. The new logo captures the vibrant and dynamic spirit of XENDER and incorporates hues of orange; a color deeply entrenched in the Indian culture.

Commenting on the milestone, Peter Jiang, Founder of XENDER said, “India is an extremely critical market for us with file transfer volume scaling 1.7 million. With maximum user base in in Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi and Kolkata, XENDER is extremely popular in metro cities and northern India. With over 500 million cumulative global users, we target to attain 800 million global users over the next 3 years”.

XENDER recently announced a new version of its app with comprehensive functions and better user experience. It offers seamless transmission between Android, iPhone, Windows Mobile, Windows PC and Apple MAC system.

Download Xender from Google Play. Let’s XENDER it!

Destination Infinity